James IV, in 1649
Elizabeth's death in 1603 ended Tudor rule in England. Since she had no children, she was succeeded by the Scottish monarch James VI, who was the great-grandson of Henry VIII's older sister. James VI ruled in England as James I after what was known as the "Union of the Crowns".
In 1642, the conflict between King and Parliament reached its climax and the English Civil War began.
The war culminated in the execution of the king in 1649, the overthrow of the monarchy, and the establishment of a republic known as the Commonwealth of England.